Pathophysiology of CD4+ T-Cell Depletion in HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections.


Vidya Vijayan, K.K.; Karthigeyan, K.P.; Tripathi, S.P.; Hanna, L.E.



Frontiers in Immunology; 2017; 8: 580.     


Abstract: The hall mark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a gradual loss of CD4+ T-cells and imbalance in CD4+ T-cell homeostasis, with progressive impairment of immunity that leads ultimately to death. HIV infection in humans is caused by two related yet distinct viruses: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-2 is typically less virulent than HIV-1 and permits the host to mount a more effective and sustained T-cell immunity. Although both infections manifest the same clinical spectrum, the much lower rate of CD4+ T-cell decline and slower progression of disease in HIV-2 infected individuals have grabbed the attention of several researchers. Here, we review the most recent findings on the differential rate of decline of CD4+ T-cell in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections and provide plausible reasons for the observed differences between the two groups.


Keywords: CD4+ T-cell, immune activation, pyroptosis, HIV-1, HIV-2



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