Heightened circulating levels of antimicrobial peptides in tuberculosis-Diabetes co-morbidity and reversal upon treatment.


Kumar, N.P .; Moideen, K .; V ijay, V.; Sivakumar, S .; Menon, P.A .; Kornfeld, H .; Babu, S .


Plos One; 2017; 12: e0184753.


Abstract: Background: The association of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity (PTB-DM) is not well understood.


Methods: To study the association of AMPs with PTB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of cathelicidin (LL37), human beta defensin- 2 (HBD2), human neutrophil peptides 1-3, (HNP1-3) and granulysin in individuals with either PTB-DM, PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB).


Results: Circulating levels of cathelicidin and HBD2 were significantly higher and granulysin levels were significantly lower in PTB-DM compared to PTB, LTB or NTB, while the levels of

HNP1-3 were significantly higher in PTB-DM compared to LTB or NTB individuals. Moreover, the levels of cathelicidin and/or HBD2 were significantly higher in PTB-DM or PTB individuals with bilateral and cavitary disease and also exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burden. Cathelidin, HBD2 and HNP1-3 levels exhibited a positive relationship with HbA1c and/or fasting blood glucose levels. Finally, anti-tuberculosis therapy resulted in significantly diminished levels of cathelicidin, HBD2, granulysin and significantly enhanced levels of HNP1-3 and granulysin in PTB-DM and/or PTB individuals.


Conclusion: Therefore, our data demonstrate that PTB-DM is associated with markedly enhanced levels of AMPs and diminished levels of granulysin.


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