Impact of MDA and the prospects of elimination of the lone focus of diurnally sub periodic lymphatic filariasis in Nicobar Islands, India.

Shriram. A.N.; Krishnamoorthy, K .; Sivan, A .; Saha, B.P .; Kumaraswami, V.; Vijayachari, P.

Acta Tropica; 2014; 133; 93-97.

Abstract: Mass Drug Administration is being carried out in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India since 2004. Cross-sectional microfilaria ( Mf ) survey was conducted in Nancowry group of islands, the lone foci of diurnally sub-periodic form of bancroftian filariasis in Nicobar district, to examine its eligibility for Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS). A total of 2561 individuals (coverage: 23.9%) were screened from five islands. The overall Mf prevalence was 3.28%. Except one island, all other islands recorded Mf prevalence >1%, ranging from 2.5% to 5.3%, indicating persistence of infection despite six annual rounds of MDA. Mf prevalence was age dependent and was higher among males, but not significantly different between genders. Age and gender specific analysis showed a significant reduction in all the age classes among females vis a vis pre-MDA prevalence while the reduction was significant only in 2130 and 4150 age classes in males. Exposure to day biting and forest dwelling Downsiomyia nivea can be attributed for the persistent infection besides non-compliance for MDA. Based on fits of modified negative binomial distribution, true prevalence of Mf carriers in the community was estimated to be 4.74%, which is markedly higher (about 24%) than the observed prevalence of 3.28%. Follow-up of cohorts showed evidence of continued persistence of infection and acquisition of new infections post six rounds of MDA. As the Mf prevalence was above >1% in four of the five islands, this area is not eligible for TAS, warranting continuation of MDA. Mass DEC fortified salt is suggested as an adjunct to hasten elimination of infection.


Keywords: Lymphatic filariasis; Wuchereria bancrofti; Sub periodic filariasis; Elimination India



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