Tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV: from pathogenesis to prediction.

Narendran G, Andrade BB, Swaminathan S.

Expert Review of Clinical Immunology; 2014; 10; 631-645.

Abstract: Tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an exaggerated, dysregulated immune response against dead or viable antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that frequently occurs after initiation of antiretroviral therapy despite an effective suppression of HIV viremia. Scientific advances in IRIS pathogenesis have led researchers and clinicians to postulate risk factors that could possibly predict this syndrome, in an attempt to reduce the incidence and the severity of IRIS, with appropriate anti-inflammatory therapy. This review is a summary of the available literature on pathogenic mechanisms involved from the macro to the micro level, the clinical spectrum, available predictors and the scope of these biomarkers to function as specific therapeutic targets, that could effectively modulate or ameliorate this syndrome in future.

Keywords: ART; biomarkers for IRIS; HAART; IRIS; Paradoxical reaction; TB



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